Behare Bajraktari, Berlin
Journalist & Publicist/Specialized in Climate Change and Environmental Journalism
Over the past year, six African countries formalized the Africa Green Hydrogen Alliance, aiming to make their continent a leader in the race to develop green hydrogen, accelerating the transition from reliance on fossil fuels and the transition to new energy technologies.
The countries officially launched the Africa Green Hydrogen Alliance at the first Global Green Hydrogen Assembly in Barcelona, with the support of high-level UN climate change champions, the Green Hydrogen Organization, the African Development Bank, and the Commission UN Economic Commission for Africa.
As for the production of green hydrogen, after Australia, the USA, Spain, Canada, Chile, Egypt, then Germany is ranked, while many African countries facing water shortages could have given hydrogen to get water. If companies with high technology reach, as “Siemens” promised, it can make water transmission.
The production of hydrogen requires a lot of water
How much water is needed?
What quality is enough?
Where should the water come from?
Water as for all other products also for the production of green hydrogen is essential, according to ‘Hydrogen Tech World’ while the market is growing it is more difficult to know that in the production of green hydrogen, it is necessary to distinguish between three types of water: ultrapure water (used as feedstock for the electrolyzed), cooling water and raw water.
The amount of ultrapure water used for electrolysis will be different from that of raw water extracted from the environment, and the quality of ultrapure water and cooling water is also different. Since oxygen is 16 times heavier than hydrogen, it is responsible for 89% of the mass of water, which means that it takes 9 liters of water to produce 1 kg of hydrogen.
Photo: Hydrogen Tech World
This ratio can be quite useful to determine the water requirements for a specific hydrogen production capacity. For example, the production of 100,000 tons of green hydrogen per year will consume 900,000 tons m3 of ultra pure water.
Green hydrogen production will consume 1.5 ppm (parts per million) of fresh ground water or 30 ppb (parts per billion) of salt water each year, an amount less than what is currently consumed by fossil-based energy production. fossil fuel and power generation.
On the other hand, water consumption has increased at more than twice the rate of population growth over the past 100 years, with about 70% now used by agriculture, 19% by industry and 11% by buildings. Although there is no global water shortage, the loss of fresh water threatens food security for 25% of the world’s population, where, on average, only two out of three people have access to drinking water.
Do we have enough water to satisfy our future demand for green hydrogen?
Green hydrogen could sustainably industrialize Africa and boost GDP by 6 to 12% in six key countries, a new report says.
The analysis identifies trade opportunities, also attractive job creation, key export markets and investment needs for Egypt, Kenya, Mauritania, Morocco, Namibia, and South Africa. With global hydrogen demand expected to grow sevenfold by 2050, new analysis from the Africa Green Hydrogen Alliance and analytical support from McKinsey outlines the opportunities for the Alliance’s 6 current member countries.
To prove this report in the Summit there was a high participation of African countries that dealt with their plans and demands in the discussion panels and had received the attention of the initiator of the Summit Christofer Gasson.
The high potential in wind and solar energy means that these countries can produce green hydrogen and related products or by-products, such as ammonia, becoming more competitive, as well as meeting domestic demand for heavy industry, in addition to market growth and exports.
The European Union, Japan and South Korea have been identified as priority export markets, reflecting the existing infrastructure and the high level of demand from existing production centers, which are unable to meet all their needs for pure hydrogen.
Between now and 2050, an investment of 450-900 billion dollars is needed.
The Africa Green Hydrogen Alliance, with the support of the UN’s high-level climate change champions, the Green Hydrogen Organization, and the African Development Bank, call for greater collaboration between governments and the private sector to unlock the necessary investments. We will talk about the partnership of the private and public sectors later in this article.
Tomorrow: Great Britain vs Germany